ABA Teaching Tools
Active Student Responding (ASR)
The Effects of Response Cards During Vocabulary Instruction (Munroe & Stephenson, 2009)
Essentially, behavior contracts state:
1) what the rule or expectation is
2) what reward or reinforcer is available for desired behavior
3) outcome/consequence is delivered for undesired behavior
While it is easy to "assume" that students "know" the rules, it is often better to ensure that all expectations are clearly outlined. Sometimes putting them in writing (or using visuals) can be very helpful.
Discrete Trial Teaching
First/Then (Premack Principle)
Specifically, the Premack Principle states that making the opportunity to go to a friend's house dependent on completing homework, it will serve as reinforcement for the less preferred activity (Cooper, Heron, and Heward, 2007).
To be precise or accurate, one must also be timely in their reply. Precision teaching approaches look at increasing a learners fluency with concepts being studied. Precision teaching is a type of programmed instruction, involving timed trials. An example where precision teaching may be used in teaching is with sight word recognition/reading. The faster a student can read/label a word, the more capable they will be to read sentences, paragraphs, and pages of information in their environment.
1) Identify the target behavior.
2) Select/design a self-monitoring system.
3) Choose reinforcers and how the student will earn them.
4) Teach the student to use the system.
5) Fade the role of the adult in the intervention.
Social Stories were created by Carol Gray in 1991. They are short descriptions of a particular situation, event or activity, which include specific information about what to expect in that situation and why.
TAGteach (teaching with acoustical guidance)
A task analysis requires breaking larger skills/routines into small, discrete steps. This can be a helpful tool for sequencing and chaining together multiple behaviors to complete larger tasks. A task analysis (TA) easily lends itself to include a self-monitoring component. The individual can use the steps as a guide/reminder of which steps to complete and in which order. It can also be used to rate one's own performance. Self-monitoring is important when developing independence and in teaching reflection and developing perspective.
Token systems are an effective way to provide praise and reflect progress. They may look different but they serve the same function. Money is a great example of a token in that by itself it is just a piece of paper BUT by exchanging it one can freely gain access to primary and secondary reinforcers (water, food, snacks, entertainment, etc.). Most adults go to work, earn a paycheck, and use it to pay for preferred or desired items and activities.
Three major components of token systems include:
1) a specified list of behaviors to reinforce,
2) tokens or points for emitting those behaviors, and
3) a menu of back-up reinforcers for which the learner can exchange tokens
Verbal Behavior - Mand Training
Interspersed trials (novel targets mixed together with mastered targets), repeated in quick succession. Promotes discrimination and attentive listening. The instructor in this video is Emily Sweeney-Kerwin, from the Carbone Clinic.
Video Modeling / Toy Play
In a video modeling procedure, the child watches the video (often looped 2 or 3 times), then is given the materials or is set up with the social situation. Using a carefully created task analysis the teacher/parent may score the steps the child completes correctly and which ones the child completes incorrectly in order to identify which specific steps require explicit teaching.